In a previous blog I have explained which what cipher suites are, the role they play in establishing SSL connections and have provided some suggestions on how you can determine which cipher suite is a strong cipher suite. In this blog post I’ll apply this knowledge to look at incoming connections to Oracle Mobile Cloud Service and Integration Cloud Service. Outgoing connections are a different story altogether. These two cloud services do not allow you control of cipher suites to the extend as for example Oracle Java Cloud Service and you are thus forced to use the cipher suites Oracle has chosen for you.
Why should you be interested in TLS? Well, ‘normal’ application authentication uses tokens (like SAML, JWT, OAuth). Once an attacker obtains such a token (and no additional client authentication is in place), it is more or less free game for the attacker. An important mechanism which prevents the attacker from obtaining the token is TLS (Transport Layer Security). The strength of the provided security depends on the choice of cipher suite. The cipher suite is chosen by negotiation between client and server. The client provides options and the server chooses the one which has its preference.
Disclaimer: my knowledge is not at the level that I can personally exploit the liabilities in different cipher suites. I’ve used several posts I found online as references. I have used the OWASP TLS Cheat Sheet extensively which provides many references for further investigation should you wish.
The supported cipher suites for the Oracle Cloud Services appear to be (on first glance) host specific and not URL specific. The APIs and exposed services use the same cipher suites. Also the specific configuration of the service is irrelevant we are testing the connection, not the message. Using tools described here (for public URL’s https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/ is easiest) you can check if the SSL connection is secure. You can also check yourself with a command like: nmap –script ssl-enum-ciphers -p 443 hostname. Also there are various scripts available. See for some suggestions here.
I’ve looked at two Oracle Cloud services which are available to me at the moment:
It was interesting to see the supported cipher suites for Mobile Cloud Service and Integration Cloud Service are the same and also the supported cipher suites for the services and APIs are the same. This could indicate Oracle has public cloud wide standards for this and they are doing a good job at implementing it!
Supported cipher suites
TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA (0xc014) ECDH secp256r1 (eq. 3072 bits RSA) FS TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256 (0xc027) ECDH secp256r1 (eq. 3072 bits RSA) FS TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA (0xc013) ECDH secp256r1 (eq. 3072 bits RSA) FS TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA256 (0x3d) TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA (0x35) TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256 (0x3c) TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA (0x2f) TLS 1.1 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA (0xc014) ECDH secp256r1 (eq. 3072 bits RSA) FS TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA (0xc013) ECDH secp256r1 (eq. 3072 bits RSA) FS TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA (0x35) TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA (0x2f) TLS 1.0 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA (0xc014) ECDH secp256r1 (eq. 3072 bits RSA) FS TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA (0xc013) ECDH secp256r1 (eq. 3072 bits RSA) FS TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA (0x35) TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA (0x2f) TLS_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA (0xa) WEAK
Liabilities in the cipher suites
You should not read this as an attack against the choices made in the Oracle Public Cloud for SSL connections. Generally the cipher suites Oracle chose to support are pretty secure and there is no need to worry unless you want to protect yourself against groups like the larger security agencies. When choosing your cipher suite in your own implementations outside the mentioned Oracle cloud products, I would go for stronger cipher suites than which are provided. Read here.
TLS 1.0 support
TLS 1.0 is supported by the Oracle Cloud services. This standard is outdated and should be disabled. Read the following for some arguments of why you should do this. It is possible Oracle choose to support TLS 1.0 since some older browsers (really old ones like IE6) do not support TLS 1.1 and 1.2 yet. This is a consideration of compatibility versus security.
TLS_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA might be a weak cipher
There are questions whether TLS_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA could be considered insecure (read here, here and here why). Also SSLLabs says it is weak. You can mitigate some of the vulnerabilities by not using CBC mode, but that is not an option in the Oracle cloud as GCM is not supported (see more below). If a client indicates he only supports TLS_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA, this cipher suite is used for the SSL connection making you vulnerable to collision attacks like sweet32. Also it uses a SHA1 hash which can be considered insecure (read more below).
Weak hashing algorithms
No GCM mode support
GCM provides data authenticity (integrity) and confidentiality checking. It is more efficient and performant compared to CBC mode. CBC only provides authenticity/integrity but no confidentiality checking. GCM uses a so-called nonce. You cannot use the same nonce to encrypt data with the same key twice.
Wildcard certificates are used
As you can see in the screenshot below, the certificate used for my Mobile Cloud Service contains a wildcard: *.mobileenv.us2.oraclecloud.com.
This means the same certificate is used for all Mobile Cloud Service hosts in a data center unless specifically overridden. See here Rule – Do Not Use Wildcard Certificates. They violate the principle of least privilege. If you decide to implement two-way SSL, I would definitely consider using your own certificates since you want to avoid trust on the data center level. They also violate the EV Certificate Guidelines. Since the certificate is per data center, there is no difference between the certificate used for development environments compared to production environments. In addition, everyone in the same data center will use the same certificate. Should the private key be compromised (of course Oracle will try not to let this happen!), this will be an issue for the entire data center and everyone using the default certificate.
Oracle provides the option to use your own certificates and even recommends this. See here. This allows you to manage your own host specific certificate instead of the one used by the data center.
Choice of keys
Only RSA and ECDHE keys are used and no DSA/DSS keys. Also the ECDHE keys are given priority above the RSA keys. ECDHE gives forward secrecy. Read more here. DHE however is preferred above ECDHE (see here) since ECDHE uses Elliptic Curves and there are doubts they are really secure. Read here and here. Oracle does not provide DHE support in their list of cipher suites.
Strengths of the cipher suites
Is it all bad? No, definitely not! You can see Oracle has put thought into choosing their cipher suites and only provide a select list. Maybe it is possible to request stronger cipher suites to be enabled by contacting Oracle support.
Good choice of encryption algorithm
AES is the preferred encryption algorithm (here). WITH_AES_256 is supported which is a good thing. WITH_AES_128 is also supported. This one is obviously weaker, but it is not really terrible that it is still used and for compatibility reasons, OWASP even recommends TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA as cipher suite (also SHA1!) so they are not completely against it.
Good choice of ECDHE curve
The ECDHE curve used is the default most commonly used secp256r1 which is equivalent to 3072 bits RSA. OWASP recommends > 2048 bits so this is ok.
No support for SSL2 and SSL3
Of course SSL2 and SSL3 are not secure anymore and usage should not be allowed.
So why these choices?
I’ve not been involved with these choices and have not talked to Oracle about this. In summary, I’m just guessing at the considerations.
I can imagine the cipher suites have been chosen to create a balance between compatibility, performance and security. Also, they could be related to export restrictions / government regulations. The supported cipher suites do not all require the installation of JCE (here) but some do. For example usage of AES_256 and ECDHE require the JCE cryptographic provider but AES_128 and RSA do not. Also of course compatibility is taken into consideration. The list of supported cipher suites are common cipher suites supported by most web browsers (see here). When taking performance into consideration (although this is hardware dependent, certain cipher suites perform better on ARM processors, others better on for example Intel), using ECDHE is not at all strange while not using GCM might not be a good idea (try for example the following: gnutls-cli –benchmark-ciphers). For Oracle using a single certificate for your data center with a wildcard is of course an easy and cheap default solution.
- Customers should consider using their own host specific certificates instead of the default wildcard certificate.
- Customers should try to put constraints on their clients. Since the public cloud offers support for weak ciphers, the negotiation between client and server determines the cipher suite (and thus strength) used. If the client does not allow weak ciphers, relatively strong ciphers will be used. It of course depends if you are able to do this since if you would like to provide access to the entire world, controlling the client can be a challenge. If however you are integrating web services, you are more in control (unless of course a SaaS solution has limitations).
- Work with Oracle support to see what is possible and where the limitations are.
- Whenever you have more control, consider using stronger cipher suites like TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384