Introducing Joda Time: The smart date API html

Introducing Joda Time: The smart date API

Recently I did a short presentation on Joda Time. Yesterday, on our yearly ODTUG preview, I was surpised that Joda Time is not known very well by ADF developers. To convince you of the power of this library I will give you a few examples of how and why I use it. It’s up to you if, after reading this post, you are going to use it in the future as well.

Lets start by asking a simple question. If you use the JDK date API what would you do to create a Date object with the value 18 februari 2009 ?


Date mydate = new Date(2009, 2, 18);


Aha… The actual statement would be:


Date mydate = new Date(109, 1, 18); 


Say what ? Yep years start to count from 1900, and months are zero based so january is 0 and december is 11. You can use Calendar instead, however, that is something I do not want to know. And that is only the Most of us are also using, and more of these……..I need an API that is easy to use. It’s time for JODA.


LocalDate mydate = new LocalDate(2009,2,18); 


The major building blocks of joda time are, instants, intervals, durations, periods, chronolgy and timezones. Let me explain this by playing around with some dates and try to do the same with the sun JDK API. First of all I want to add or substract days and years from a certain date. You would have to create two calenderInstances and then do the calculations. Be aware: substracting is actually adding a negative amount…..


    Calendar now = Calendar.getInstance();
    Calendar somewhereInTime;
    SimpleDateFormat formatter =
      new SimpleDateFormat("E yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss a zzz");

    somewhereInTime = (Calendar)now.clone();
    somewhereInTime.add(Calendar.YEAR, - 4);
    System.out.println("  Four years ago it was: " + formatter.format(somewhereInTime.getTime()));


Joda allows you to substract or add units by calling the according methods directly.


    LocalDate now = new LocalDate();
    LocalDate somewhereInTime;
    DateTimeFormatter fmt =;

    somewhereInTime = now.minusYears(4);
    System.out.println("  Four years ago it was: " + somewhereInTime.toString(fmt));


I will not start a discussion on leapyears, because that works pretty much ok in both libs, however JODA thinks that 1000 AD is not a leapyear while JDK thinks it is. Both are rigth because according to the gregorian calendar 1000 is not a leapyear, but the gregorian calendar was only invented in 1538 ! In the year 1000 AD the Julian calender was used and 1000 is a leapyear.


Now lets take a look at how to calculate the diffence between two dates, or more specifically, how to get the exact number of days between two given dates.


  private static void dateDiff() {

    System.out.println("Calculate difference between two dates");

    Date startDate = new GregorianCalendar(2000, 1, 19, 00, 00).getTime();
    Date endDate = new Date();

    long diff = endDate.getTime() - startDate.getTime();

    System.out.println("  Difference between " + endDate);
    System.out.println("  and " + startDate + " is " + (diff / (1000L * 60L * 60L * 24L)) + " days.");



What about that… 1000 milis times 60 seconds times 60 minutes times 24 hours and there’s your difference in days…. With JODA it works like this:


  private static void dateDiff() {

    System.out.println("Calculate difference between two dates");

    DateTime startDate = new DateTime(2000, 1, 19, 0, 0, 0, 0);
    DateTime endDate = new DateTime();

    Days d = Days.daysBetween(startDate, endDate);
    int days = d.getDays();

    System.out.println("  Difference between " + endDate);
    System.out.println("  and " + startDate + " is " + days + " days.");



Easy isn’t it ? You can also work with intervals. To do that you just declare an interval with an startDate and an endDate. Take a look at the following example


  private static void intervalAndDuration() {
  DateTime start = new DateTime();
  DateTime  end = start.plusYears(2);

  Interval interval = new Interval(start, end);

  //From the interval it's easy to get the start and end by just 'getting' them

  DateTime start = interval.getStart();

  //If you need to know what the duration of an interval is, you can invoke toDuration() on the inteval.

  Duration duration = interval.toDuration();
  // its also possible to work with period. A period is a period of time in terms of fields. That is:YEARS, MONTHS, WEEKS   // and so on

  Period period = interval.toPeriod();

  // or

  Period weeks = interval.toPeriod(PeriodType.weeks());


The chronology is a kind of pluggable calendar, that can handle the different calendar systems.


Chronology coptic = CopticChronology.getInstance();
    DateTime now = new DateTime(coptic);
    int year = now.getYear();
    // year is 1725
Chronology buddhist = BuddhistChronology.getInstance();
    DateTime now = new DateTime(buddhist);
    int year = now.getYear();
    // year is 2525


Last thing to show is the easy conversion from a JDK date to a JODA date and vice versa. This is very easy. You can construct a new JODA date from a JDK date, do calculations and when you are finished go back to JDK date. Converting from joda-time to Calendar/Date involves a single method call either way. For example: new DateTime(Calendar or Date) and DateTime.toCalendar(). That’s just one example. You can convert pretty much any other joda-time construct back to JDK classes with ease.


Using joda time in your ADF project is easy. just include the jodatime library in your project, and include it in the classes where you need it.

For me it is clear that JODA time has a very friendly API which can be used to do exactly what I want. Also  JSR-310 (new date and time API for Java) is inspired by Joda-Time.


There is much more to tell about JODA time, so if you are curious, you can take a look at the homepage at



  1. Kaushik Gopal March 14, 2012
  2. shwetha February 10, 2012
  3. Luc Bors March 6, 2011
  4. ana March 3, 2011
  5. Luc Bors August 12, 2009
  6. Robert Willems August 10, 2009
  7. Jasper Fontaine June 17, 2009